Topics in Mineral Exploration and Economic Geology


Topics in Mineral Exploration and Economic Geology

Facultad de Ciencias
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Topics in Mineral Exploration and Economic Geology

This course has the objective to offer information relevant to students interested in careers in the mineral resource sector and professionals in activities related to the mineral exploration and mining sectors, with a focus on metallic resources such as gold, silver, copper, zinc, lead, molybdenum, uranium, and gemstones such as diamonds. 
The course provides an overview of the economics of the mineral sector, including the current state of the sector, a review of the major types of mineral deposits for metals and gemstones, and a review of the main exploration techniques currently used in mineral exploration. In addition, the course addresses topics related to the management, business and regulatory aspects of mineral exploration projects, including the corporate social responsibility of companies involved in exploration and mining. The course discusses examples of various aspects related to mineral projects from Colombia and Latin America, as well as other parts of the world.
The course integrates numerous aspects from different disciplines / domains (e.g. mineral economics, Economic Geology, project management, regulatory aspects) that need to be understood by professionals and managers of mineral exploration and development companies, as well as by investors in such companies and by investment advisors.

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The content of the course is of interest to:
  • Geology / Geoscience / Earth Science graduates and students pursuing pre- and post-graduate studies, who contemplate careers in the mineral and mining industries;
  • Employees of companies involved in the mineral resource sector (e.g. exploration and mining companies, geophysical companies, drilling companies, assay laboratories), both at the technical and management levels, who would like to acquire / refresh knowledge on the multiple and complex aspects that need to be considered for the proper execution of mineral exploration projects;   
  • Government professionals involved in the development of policies and regulations for the mineral sector in Colombia and in the acquisition of background geoscientific data on the Colombian territory, who would like to understand the needs and constraints of the mineral exploration and development companies;
  • Potential investors who contemplate investments in exploration and mining companies; 
  • Financial analysts interested in providing informed advice regarding investments in Mineral Exploration and Mining.


  • Understanding of mineral economics – relationships between the economic cycles and mineral exploration, as an activity responding to the Society’s demand for metals; 
  • Understanding of long-term trends in the demand for metals and in multiple aspects regarding the search and the discovery of mineral deposits (e.g. global exploration budget trends, commodities sought, regional trends, discovery trends);
  • General understanding of the major classes of mineral deposits, their geological environment, their characteristics and their formation;
  • General understanding of the techniques available for the search of mineral deposits.
  • Understanding of the aspects involved in the management of exploration projects, including regulatory and social corporate responsibility aspects.


The course consists of a series of eight lectures, two hours each, for a total of 16 hours. The course is offered in the English language. There is no evaluation or test in this course.


  • Mineral Sector Economics: demand for mineral resources, mineral resources and mineral reserves, prices, cycles, markets, structure of the industry, stages of projects, chances of success, factors of risk, financing, long-term trends in exploration;
  • Mineral Deposits: Classifications, Magmatic deposits, Hydrothermal Deposits (Porphyry, Skarn, Epithermal, VMS, Orogenic Gold), Sedimentary Deposits;
  • Exploration Techniques: remote sensing, geologic mapping, geophysics, geochemistry, drilling;
  • Mineral Exploration Projects: Guidelines for planning and execution, quality assurance and quality control, Regulatory Aspects, Business and Management aspects, Corporate Social Responsibility


Bogdan Nitescu PhD

1995 – Licensed (Bachelor of Engineering) in Applied Geophysics, University of Bucharest 2000 - Master of Science in Geology, University of Toronto 2004 – PhD in Geology, University of Toronto 2005 – Lecturer in Geology, University of Toronto 2006-2007 – Postdoctoral Researcher, Geological Survey of Canada / University of Toronto 2005-2019 – Exploration Geologist and Geophysicist, Geoscience Consultant for Junior Exploration Companies 2019-Present – Assistant Professor, Universidad de Los Andes Since 2012, Professional Geoscientist, Member of the Association of Professional Geoscientists of Ontario


Eventualmente la Universidad puede verse obligada, por causas de fuerza mayor a cambiar sus profesores o cancelar el programa. En este caso el participante podrá optar por la devolución de su dinero o reinvertirlo en otro curso de Educación Continua que se ofrezca en ese momento, asumiendo la diferencia si la hubiere.

La apertura y desarrollo del programa estará sujeto al número de inscritos. El Departamento/Facultad (Unidad académica que ofrece el curso) de la Universidad de los Andes se reserva el derecho de admisión dependiendo del perfil académico de los aspirantes.